FROM WIKIPEDIA COMMONS
The Supreme Soviet of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian: Верховный Совет Союза Советских Социалистических Республик, tr.Verkhovnyy Sovet Soyuza Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik) was, beginning in 1936, the most authoritative legislative body of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), and the only one with the power to approve constitutional amendments. Prior to 1936, the Congress of Soviets was the supreme legislative body. During 1989–1991 a similar, but not identical structure was the supreme legislative body. The Supreme Soviet elected the USSR’s collective head of state, the Presidium; and appointed the Council of Ministers, the Supreme Court, and the Procurator General of the USSR.
The Supreme Soviet was composed of two chambers, each with equal legislative powers, with members elected for four-year terms:
- The Soviet of the Union, elected on the basis of the population with one deputy for every 300,000 people in the Soviet federation.
- The Soviet of Nationalities, which represented the ethnic populations as units, with members elected on the basis of 32 deputies from each union republic, 11 from each autonomous republic, five from each autonomous oblast (region), and one from each autonomous okrug (district). The administrative units of the same type would send the same number of members regardless of their size or population.
After 1989 it consisted of 542 deputies (divided into two 271 chambers). (decreased from previously 1,500). The meetings of the body were also more frequent, from six to eight months a year. In September 1991, after the August Coup, it was reorganised into the Soviet (council) of Republics and the Soviet of The Union, which would jointly amend the Soviet Constitution, admit new states, hear out the President of the Soviet Union on important home and foreign policy issues, approve the union budget, declare war and conclude peace. The Soviet of Republics would consist of 20 deputies from each union republic, plus 1 deputy to represent each autonomous region of each republic, delegated by the republics legislatures. Russia was an exception with 52 deputies. The Soviet Union consisted of deputies apportioned by the existing quotas.
In 1989, its powers were:
- Passing and initiating laws.
- Submitting questions to the President of the Soviet Union, the Council of Ministers of the Soviet Union, scheduling elections of deputies.
- Convening the Congress of People’s Deputies.
- Appointing the Chairman of the Council of Ministers on the submission of the president.
- Ratifying the composition of the Council of Ministers and changes in it on the submission on the Chairman.
- Forming and disbanding ministries and state committees on the Council of Ministers proposal.
- Overriding a presidential veto with a two-thirds majority.
- Ratifying presidential declarations of war.
- Impeaching the President.
- Hearing reports by organs of appointed officials.
- Implementing laws regulating property, management of the economy, social and cultural issues, budget and finance, salaries, prices, taxes, environmental protection, natural resource, and civil rights,
- Laying down the principals of local and republic state power and the legal status of social organisations,
- Submitting for ratification (and ratifying and amending) by the congress long-term national and social and economic development plans, the national budget, monitoring implantation of the state plan and budget, and ratifying reports on their performance.
- Ratifying international treaties.
- Overseeing the granting of foreign aid and negotiating foreign loans.
- Determining basic measures for national security, including declarations of war, mobilizing troops, and meeting international treaty obligations.
Acts by the Supreme Soviet entered into force after signature by the President and publication.
Between 1938 and February 1990, more than 50 years, only 80 laws were passed by the Supreme Soviet, less than 1% of total legislative acts.
Question of the Day
How fast can an average household cat run?
The domesticated cat can run at about 30 mph for a short distance — say, to the nearest bowl of tuna.
Advice of the Day
It is easier to drive nails through wood if they are first pushed through a bar of soap.
Home Hint of the Day
Remove oil or latex paint from glass by scraping it off with a razor blade. (To make the process easier, first soften the paint by wiping it with hot vinegar on a soft cloth.)
Word of the Day
Rounded cloud mass that forms on top of a layer.
Puzzle of the Day
The Silver State.(Name the U.S. state!)
- John Locke (philosopher) – 1632
- Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. (author) – 1809
- Ingrid Bergman (actress) – 1915
- Isabel Sanford (actress) – 1917
- Charlie Parker (musician) – 1920
- Lord Richard Attenborough (actor) – 1923
- Joel Schumacher (film director) – 1939
- Michael Jackson (singer) – 1958
- Chris Hadfield (astronaut) – 1959
- Carla Gugino (actress) – 1971
- Chris Simms (football player) – 1980
- Christian Friedrich Schönbein (chemist) – 1868
- Brigham Young (Mormon leader) – 1877
- Earl Grey (Canadian Governor General 1904 – 1911) – 1917
- William Archibald Spooner (known for verbal inversions called spoonerisms”“) – 1930
- Ingrid Bergman (actress) – 1982
- First Peppersass steam locomotive demonstration on the Mount Washington Cog Railway took place– 1866
- Althea Gibson became the first African American woman to compete in a national tennis tournament– 1950
- As Sen. Thurmond’s filibuster came to an end, he established a new record for the longest speech by one senator (24 hrs and 18 min.), and despite his efforts The Civil Rights Bill passed– 1957
- United States Air Force Academy opened in Colorado Springs, Colorado– 1958
- The Beatles perform their last tour concert, in San Francisco– 1966
- The Supreme Soviet suspended all activities of the Soviet Communist Party– 1991
- Hackberry, Louisiana, received 22 inches of rain in 24 hours– 1962
- A cold wave brought 2.5 inches of snow to the top of New Hampshire’s Mount Washington for an August record– 1965
- Hurricane Katrina devastated the coastal regions of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama. More than 1,800 lives were lost– 2005